Reasons Toddlers Bite and Tips for Preventing Biting in the Classroom
Biting in infants and toddlers is a common behavioral problem and can be difficult and frustrating to deal with at times. All infants and toddlers teethe and put everything in their mouth, causing them to bite not only toys but their family and classmates as well.
From personal experience I know how frustrating it can be to deal with young toddlers who bite. I work at a daycare where the other teacher refuses to help watch the 8 young toddlers in the room. Leaving me to watch 8 toddlers who are only a year old. It can be a dauntinkg task, but from experience it can be done.
Since I have started a month ago the biting has dropped at least fifty percent if not more. Most of the biting incidents we deal with now are due to lack of proper supervision as it is almost impossible for me to watch all 8 toddlers at one time.
Below are some reasons why toddlers bite and how we as parents and teachers can prevent toddlers and infants from biting.
Reasons Why Children Bite:
There are many reasons why toddlers and infants bite, however it is still not known or understood why some children bite while others do not. Despite this there are six main reasons why your child or a child in your classroom resorts to biting.
- Exploration: Infants and toddlers are learning and growing which means putting everything in their mouth. Most infants and toddlers do not understand the difference between toys and people, therefore it's hard to teach them no bite in terms of biting people.
- Teething: Is unavoidable, and infants and toddlers put everything in their mouth to help soothe their gums from the pain of teething. Whether it's a toy or person, the child may simply be trying to rid their gums of discomfort.
- Cause and Effect: Some children bite to see what happens. They drop a toy from the crib and watch it fall, they learn you will pick it up. Same goes for biting, they bite you or a child to see what happens.
- Attention: Some children bite as a result of feeling invisible or left out. Even negative attention is good attention in the eyes of a child who feels left out of a group.
- Imitation: Toddlers and infants learn through imitation. If they see another child bite and the child gets what they want, the observing child is likely to try biting the next time they want something.
- Frustration and Stress: Just as adults feel frustrated stress so do infants and toddlers. Whether it be because they don't know the words, are lacking a daily schedule or routine, or there was a recent major event (divorce, move, death, ect.) in their life, children will resort to biting.
What to do?
When you observe a child bite it is important to go over to the child rather than yell at them from across the room. Getting down to eye level with the child and talking firmly but quietly will get the infant or toddler's attention best. Once you have the child's attention it is important to let the child know that biting is not okay and it hurts their friends.
Another thing to do is teach infants and toddlers nice, soft, and gentle touches. Teaching them nice touches not only keeps them from biting their friends, but they will be less likely to push, hit, and pinch their friends.
If you absolutely have to redirect the child, always come back to the child after you have taken care of the injured child who got bit. Only redirection will not help in stopping a child to bite.
The childcare center I work for requires redirection and it is so hard for me personally to deal with redirection. The one biter we have in the classroom will bite another child in a different play area if we simply use redirection, because the child is not understanding that his biting a friend is wrong.
Tips for Preventing Biting:
These tips may not work for every child or even every biting situation you encounter, however many of these tips are meant to prevent biting in the first place. If you can create an environment in which a child does not need to resort to biting, the chances of you dealing with a biting incident can become slim to none.
- 2 of every toy insures that children do not have to fight or wait for long periods of time to play with a certain toy.
- Be aware of teething and insure that your home or classroom contains soft chew toys, a damp cloth, or teething rings that children can bite into. Having these types of items available to infants and toddlers will greatly reduce their likelihood of biting another child.
- Allow for tension release opportunities through play dough, water time, sensory play, and plenty of time outside. When children have the ability to release stress and tension they will be less likely to bite out of anger and stress.
- Teach simple words and phrases such as "No bite", "Stop", "No", and "Mine". This allows the toddler to learn words to solve their problems rather than resorting to physical means.
- Individual attention and affection for each infant or toddler in your care will show that child you care about them and want to spend time with them.
- Avoid stressful situations such as crowded places for learning time, or standing to close together. Allow for more than one play area or make sure the play area is big enough for at least three children to play at a time without being on top of each other. Crowds and tight places cause children to feel stressed and in need of space, so they bite those children closest to them.
*Note: Do not allow a biter to have a nuk/pacifier all day. This does not prevent biting.
Teaching New Behaviors:
Rather than negative discipline such as time outs, biting back, and redirection it is important to teach new behaviors to a child who bites. Time outs are especially not useful in biting incidents, because many infants and toddlers cannot connect the biting incident to the time out.
Biting back also is extremely unhelpful, because that tells the child biting is okay. Redirection shows the child there is no discipline for their actions and that if they bite they will simply get to go play somewhere else with their toy.
Instead of discipline it is important to change the child's behavior into something we want the child to do or say when faced with an incident where they would usually bite. For example you could have the biter help you care for the child they just bit. Have them help you comfort the child and show the biter that biting hurts their friends.
Infants and toddlers will not learn these new behaviors overnight, but with patient and consistent parents and teachers they will eventually learn.
Many of these tips are meant to prevent biting from happening in the first place, however it is almost impossible to not have at least one biter in a toddler or infant group. These tips will also help if you are looking to stop the biters you have in your classroom or family.
For discouraging biting in the future keep daily schedules and routines so your infant and toddlers will know what to expect. Predictable routines keep children feeling safe and comfortable. Always provide close supervision. If your children are split between two play areas, make sure there is an adult in each play area to supervise and reduce the chances of any biting incidents.
Lastly being patient and consistent is key. When the toddler bites another child ensure that the child receives the same action after every biting incident. With consistent action the child will learn faster and be less likely to bite in the future.